Supplements are not regulated, so it`s best to use them with caution, investigate their source, and question the health benefits claimed by the product`s manufacturers. Consult your doctor before taking ephedrine and related products, and make sure you understand the legality of the medication in your condition. Is training required for personnel involved in the sale of pseudoephedrine? Pseudoephedrine is a medication found in prescription and over-the-counter products used to relieve nasal congestion or sinus congestion caused by colds, sinusitis, hay fever and other respiratory allergies. It can also be used illegally to produce methamphetamine. Ephedrine, a sympathomimetic amine, acts on part of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The main mechanism of action is based on its indirect stimulation of the adrenergic receptor system by increasing norepinephrine activity at postsynaptic receptors α and β. [29] The presence of direct interactions with α receptors is unlikely, but remains controversial. [11] [39] [40] L-ephedrine, and in particular its stereoisomer norpseudoephedrine (which is also present in Catha epilis), has indirect sympathomimetic effects and is a CNS stimulant similar to amphetamines due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, but less pronounced because it releases norepinephrine and dopamine into the substantia nigra. [41] High blood pressure: Higher blood pressure is always a risk with stimulants, but with ephedrine, the number of hospitalizations reported was much higher than with a regular stimulant such as coffee. What if I have more questions about pseudoephedrine or this new law? Industrial production of ephedrine in China began in the 1920s when Merck began marketing and selling the drug in the form of ephetonin. China`s exports of ephedrine to the West increased from 4 to 216 tons between 1926 and 1928.

[44] Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine increase blood pressure and act as bronchodilators, with pseudoephedrine acting much less. [11] Deaths: Finally, there have been several deaths involving ephedra as a possible direct or indirect cause. The most famous example was the Baltimore Orioles jug, Steve Bechler, who died after taking ephedrine. Yes, ephedra is illegal in the United States. It has been banned since 2004. In the years leading up to the ban, the U.S. FDA received a variety of reports suggesting that people taking ephedra had many adverse effects, even when they took it at a level close to the recommended dose. Therefore, the FDA decided to ban the drug.

Methamphetamine is a powerful and addictive stimulant. It is manufactured in clandestine and illegal laboratories in the United States. Methamphetamine can be taken by swallowing, inhaling, injecting or smoking. Side effects resulting from methamphetamine use and abuse include irritability, nervousness, insomnia, nausea, depression and brain damage. Ephedrine can be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor possible abuse by athletes, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in a forensic examination of death. Many commercial immunoassay tests targeting amphetamines clearly react with ephedrine, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish ephedrine from other phenethylamine derivatives. Ephedrine concentrations in blood or plasma are typically between 20 and 200 μg/L in people taking the drug for therapeutic purposes, 300-3000 μg/L in consumers or poisoned patients, and 3-20 mg/L in acute fatal overdose. The current World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) limit for ephedrine in an athlete`s urine is 10 mcg/ml. [20] [21] [22] [23] Shekelle P, Morton S, Maglione M. Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance Enhancement: Clinical Effectiveness and Side Effects. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-rated Reviews [Internet].

2003. Does this mean I need a prescription from my doctor to buy pseudoephedrine? Bupropion is an example of an antidepressant with an amphetamine-like structure similar to ephedrine, and it is an NDRI. Its action is closer to amphetamine than to fluoxetine, since its main therapeutic effect involves noradrenaline and, to a lesser extent, dopamine, but it also releases serotonin from presynaptic slits. It should not be used with ephedrine as it may increase the likelihood of side effects. The FDA recommends that consumers read the labels of over-the-counter drugs to determine if the product contains pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine. The FDA believes this is the most accurate method for determining the content of over-the-counter products, rather than providing an incomplete or outdated list of products that may already have been reformulated and no longer contain these ingredients. As we discussed above, science confirmed the effectiveness of ephedrine for weight loss a long time ago. Here are some examples: Products containing pseudoephedrine are already considered prescription controlled substances in my state. Does this new law change this status? As I discuss in my historical review of ephedrine use in the United States, ephedrine was sold and used as a « legal » amphetamine drug « doppelganger » for decades after amphetamine became a controlled substance in 1970. In an ironic twist, amphetamine was first used as a substitute for ephedrine in the early 1930s.