In surgical research, frailty is increasingly used as an age-associated tool to assess vulnerability and is associated with poor clinical outcomes such as surgical site infections (Korol et al. 2013). A review of the orthopaedic literature shows only one recently published study demonstrating the use of a frailty index measure (Patel et al. 2014). Researchers found that patients aged 60 years or older with a hip fracture and a modified frailty score of 4 or older had an increased risk of mortality at 1 and 2 years (Patel et al. 2014). The importance of this study in terms of orthopaedic research was highlighted in an editorial accompanying the publication of this study (Zampini 2014). The author of the editorial describes how there are significant physiological differences between elderly patients and the use of a frailty index allows us to objectively distinguish the different groups, which is important for improving orthopedic clinical practice (Zampini 2014). This view is echoed by the recently published guidelines of the British Geriatric Society, which recommend that elderly patients undergoing surgery be assessed using the Edmonton Frailty Scale, as this can aid in preoperative optimization (Turner and Clegg 2014). In the past, aging people were called elderly. However, in recent decades, many people have used the word « older » because they believe it is the most sensitive or politically correct way to appeal to an aging population. I retired at age 65 (salary level freed up).
With a little fear, I found another position in my field. I`ve always loved playing. I had two knee implants before I retired. The last one 11 years ago. My game was recorded on several levels. I first learned to swim at the age of 70. I swim 4 times a week. I started weightlifting 10 years ago and I was doing 3 sessions a week. I own 3 bikes and ride every chance I get. I supplement and use funeral fasting. I pray and meditate daily.
I write every day. As a 75-year-old woman, I no longer suffer from pain. I sleep very, very well. I thank God every day for the movement and ALL the countless blessings I enjoy. For me, I`m doing more right now than I was 25. My life goals are to stay active, keep learning and keep moving. I am a lovely senior person. I also lead 30-day squat challenges with a group of women – remotely with daily thumbs-up notifications to view daily conversions.
We are in our 7th session of the 30-day challenge. I work too. I love the help I have the chance to give. My motto: Do everything I can, where I am, with what I have, for as long as I can with passionate joy! Live life at my best! Although no significant differences in the range of reported definitions of an older adult were found when examining the different research groups (development region, orthopaedic subspecialty and level of evidence), some populations within these groups were very small and therefore there is a risk of Type II errors in our results. Older adults are often defined as those aged 65 or older (Crews & Zavotka, 2006). In advanced economies, this subgroup is growing rapidly, accounting for nearly 15 per cent of their population (Crews, 2005). As the population of older citizens increases, the social and economic pressure to care for them increases proportionately (Crews, 2005). Nevertheless, a large proportion of people over the age of 65 are healthy and live independently (Crews and Zavotka, 2006). Therefore, the definition of old age by chronology in medical research or economic evaluations of health may have its limitations.
First, there are demographic differences in age definitions based on chronology. Although the World Health Organization defines patients as persons aged 65 or older due to differences in socioeconomic conditions and life expectancy, for the purposes of its demographic studies in Africa, a person is defined as older if they are 50 years of age or older (United Nations 2012). Second, as life expectancy and population health improve with advances in medicine, an age-defined older population in the twenty-first century may be physiologically healthier and functionally more powerful than that of the twentieth century (Sanderson and Scherbov, 2008; Crews and Zavotka, 2006).